MySQL is the world's second most popular database management system and is the world's most widely used open-source relational database management system (RDMS).
SQL or Structured Query Language is a programming language designed for the management of a database system and its content, specifically in relation to an RDMS.
SQL is largely a declarative language. It also however, features procedural elements.
This tutorial requires access to some MySQL server, preferably a local one.
MAMP is a good way to get started and is used largely for this tutorial.
Server-side lanaguage knowledge is not required but it is maybe a good idea for testing MySQL statements.
You can find my PHP tutorial here.
This tutorial covers SQL, but it focuses on the MySQL and MariaDB implementations of SQL and not on the MS-SQL implementation.
It is important to note that as there are strong similarities between MariaDB and MySQL, this tutorial will largely work with either.